ACP background

During the Open Woroking Group sessions at the United Nations, several member states made their positions known on key issues related to Sustainable Development and the Post 2015 Development Agenda. The Africa Platform has analysed positions taken by member states from the first to the last session of the Open Working Group.

Below are the results based on selected O.W.G. proposed goals

 

Specific Target: None
Goal and Target: 3. Poverty eradication, changing unsustainable and promoting sustainable patterns of consumption and production and protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development are the overarching objectives of and essential requirements for sustainable development.
Countries for: Spain, Italy, Turkey, Lesotho, Honduras, Germany, France Switzerland, Palestine, Slovenia, Montenegro, Serbia, Belarus, Cyprus, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, The Republic of Korea, Guinea, Maldives, Sweden, Finland, Guatemala, Ireland, Denmark, Norway, Tanzania, Mexico, Peru, UK, Australia, Netherlands, Canada, US, Israel, Zambia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Australia, Bolivia, Japan, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Austria, Finland, Gabon, Portugal
Countries Against: None
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: Slovenia, Montenegro– called for better use of natural resources

Mexico, Peru, UK, Australia, Netherlands– targets to measure progress on efficient use of natural resources

Japan– consolidated targets on natural resources into other goals, problem measuring the sustainable use of natural resources

Paraguay– control over natural resources is the responsibility of sovereign states

UK, Australia, Netherlands– target on sustainable management and use of natural resources should be consistent with Aichi Target 4, referring to safe ecological limits

 

Specific Target: 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all
Goal and Target: 4.7 by 2030 ensure all learners acquire knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including among others through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
Countries for: Ecuador, Fiji, China, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Cyprus, United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Germany, Switzerland, Zimbabwe, Egypt, Bolivia, Peru, Mexico, Uganda, Saudi Arabia, Ecuador, Argentina, Bolivia, Qatar, Palau, Indonesia, The Republic of Korea, Trinidad, Tobago, Greece 
Countries Against: None
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: Cyprus, United Arab Emirates, Singapore– culture should be integrated at all levels as it’s a cross-cutting issue

Bulgaria, Croatia– should either be a separate goal or sub-theme, disappointed that culture wasn’t included on the focus areas document

Ecuador– “culture is not a market product”

Peru– culture to be incorporated into the SDGs

Qatar– mainstreaming culture in SDGs and Post-2015 development agenda

Palau-adding targets on the role of culture

Greece– amendments to reference culture

Ecuador– culture incorporated as the fourth pillar of sustainable development

 

Specific Target: 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
Goal and Target: 5.a undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance, and natural resources in accordance with national laws
Countries for: Pakistan, Liechtenstein,   Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Australia, Romania, Greece, Bolivia, Nigeria, Argentina, Ecuador, Finland, UK.
Countries Against: None
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: None

 

Specific Target: None
Goal and Target: 7. Rio+20 outcomes reaffirmed the need to be guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, with full respect for international law and its principles. It reaffirmed the importance of freedom, peace and security, respect for all human rights, including the right to development and the right to an adequate standard of living, including the right to food and water, the rule of law, good governance, gender equality, women’s empowerment and the overall commitment to just and democratic societies for development. It also reaffirmed the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as other international instruments relating to human rights and international law.
Countries for: Egypt, Algeria, morocco, Tunisia, Montenegro, UK, Australia, Netherlands, Ireland, Canada, Israel, US, Cyprus, Singapore, UAE, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Japan, Nepal, Zimbabwe, Thailand, Zambia, Iran, Brazil, Nicaragua, Botswana, Kuwait, Estonia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Cuba, Senegal, Benin, Moldova, Nigeria, Syria, Belgium, Guinea-Bissau, Czech Republic, Syrian Arab Republic, Sweden, Portugal, Finland, Austria, Saudi Arabia, Uganda, Serbia, Mexico, Trinidad, Tobago, Fiji, China, Gambia, Belarus, Maldives, Latvia, Peru, Spain, Italy, Turkey, Liechtenstein, Costa Rica, Kenya, Bulgaria, Croatia, Iceland, Slovenia, Switzerland, France, Germany, Indonesia, China, Kazakhstan, Germany, France, Romania, Poland, Finland, South Africa, Uruguay, Norway , Denmark
Countries Against: Bangladesh
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: Bangladesh – opposed right-based approach instead focus on access and equality objectives

 

Specific Target: 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
Goal and Target: 8.4 improve progressively through 2030 global resource efficiency in consumption and production, and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production with developed countries taking the lead
Countries for: Ireland, Norway, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Turkey, Ecuador, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Colombia, Guatemala, India, Thailand, Bhutan, Viet Nam, Uruguay, Papua New Guinea, Nauru, Palau, Poland, Romania, Brazil, Nicaragua, Kenya, The Republic of Korea, Iran, Barbados, Bahamas, Croatia, Bulgaria, Saudi Arabia, France, Germany, Switzerland, Maldives, Indonesia, India, Egypt, Sweden, China, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Greece, Trinidad, Tobago, Lesotho, Kazakhstan,
Countries Against: None
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: Colombia, Guatemala– address wasteIndonesia, India, Egypt – as a stand-alone goal

Bangladesh– added SCP target on reduction of waste in food production and consumption

Greece– target to address environmental impacts

Trinidad, Tobago– adding targets on overconsumption

Indonesia, China, Kazakhstan– focus area should better reflect unsuitable consumption

 

Specific Target:  10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
Goal and Target: 10.4 adopt policies especially fiscal, wage, and social protection policies and progressively achieve greater equality
Countries for: Guatemala, Colombia, Tunisia, South Africa, Kenya, Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Bulgaria, Croatia, Japan, India, Brazil, Nicaragua, Benin, Barbados, US, Canada, Israel, Cuba, Iran, Nepal Egypt, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Switzerland, France, Germany
Countries Against: Singapore, Cyprus, UAE,
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: None

 

Specific Target: None
Goal and Target: 12. Each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development and the role of national policies, domestic resources and development strategies cannot be overemphasized. Developing countries need additional resources for sustainable development. There is a need for significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources and the effective use of financing, in order to promote sustainable development. Rio+20 affirms the commitment to reinvigorating the global partnership for sustainable development and to mobilizing the necessary resources for its implementation. The report of the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing will propose options for a sustainable development financing strategy. The substantive outcome of the third International Conference on Financing for Development in July 2015 will assess the progress made in the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus and the Doha Declaration. Good governance and the rule of law at the national and international levels are essential for sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth, sustainable development and the eradication of poverty and hunger.
Countries for: Argentina, Tunisia, Papua New Guinea, Nauru, Palau, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Netherlands, Australia, UK, Sweden, Zimbabwe, Norway, Denmark, Ireland, Peru, Togo, Gambia, Nepal, Benin, Guyana. Indonesia, Kazakhstan, China, Jamaica, Montenegro, Slovenia, Turkey, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Germany, France, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Benin, Timor-Leste, Moldova, The Republic of Korea, Liechtenstein, Nigeria, Jordan, Guinea-Bissau, Uganda, Czech Republic, Finland, Ireland, Bolivia, Romania, Palau, Croatia, Bulgaria, Nauru, Latvia, Greece, Austria, Kenya, Lesotho, Poland, The Republic of Korea, Zambia
Countries Against: Bangladesh
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: Bangladesh– compartmentalized application of governance won’t deliver on the global commons

Netherlands, UK, Australia, Sweden, Finland, Bulgaria, Croatia– governance as a separate goal

Czech Republic, Austria, , Poland, Romania– governance should be a stand-alone goal

Finland– inclusion of women and civil society in decision making

Germany, France, Switzerland– two separate goals on governance and peaceful societies

 

Specific Target: 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Goal and Target: 16.3 promote the rule of law at the national and international levels, and ensure equal access to justice for all
Countries for: Liechtenstein, Gambia, Kenya, Iran, Belgium, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Finland, Germany, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Mongolia, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, Guatemala, Mexico, Netherlands, UK, Australia, Turkey, Spain, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tanzania, Japan, Bangladesh, Moldova, The Republic of Korea, Bolivia, Ecuador, Nigeria, South Africa, Syria, Guinea-Bissau, Bulgaria, Croatia, Uganda, Pakistan, Brazil, Nicaragua, US, Canada, Israel, Costa Rica, Palau, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Zambia, Ethiopia, Finland, Barbados, Iran, Colombia, Peru, Argentina, Portugal, India, Cuba, Sierra Leone,
Countries Against: The Russian Federation, Bangladesh, China, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, Egypt
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: Iran-greater attention at the international level

Guatemala– critical to articulate the interrelationship between justice, peace, rule of law and development

Japan, Colombia, Guatemala, Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador-should cut across the SDGs

Moldova– rule of law pre-condition for better development

The Russian Federation– goes beyond the agreement reached at Rio+20

Liechtenstein– not a question of “if” but “how” the rule of law will be part of the post-2015 agenda, more interlinkages to rule of law in other focus areas, not reflected properly

Bolivia, Ecuador– rule of law strengthened by regional mechanisms e.g. agreements in Latin America integration group

Syria– should be founded on sovereignty of states to choose their economic and social systems

Uganda– rule of law should be seen as development enablers as per Rio+20

Bangladesh- best suited for the narrative of the post-2015 agenda not goals and targets

Pakistan, US, Canada, Israel, Finland– should be separated from peace and conflict focus

Costa Rica– remains weak throughout the text

Denmark, Sweden– separate goal on rule of law and governance

China, Kazakhstan, Indonesia– internal matter and not goal-able

Iran-should account for the diversity of systems and local culture

Portugal– should mention sexual and gender-based violence

Cuba– move rule of law targets to other focus areas

Egypt– broad with undefined parameters

 

Specific Target: 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Goal and Target: 16.5 substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all its forms
Countries for: Benin, Cyprus, Mexico,   Peru, Singapore, UAE, Egypt, Romania, Liechtenstein, Senegal, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Croatia, Sweden, The Republic of Korea, Nigeria, Serbia, Australia, UK, Ireland, Bulgaria.
Countries Against: Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador.
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: Counties Against – corruption is difficult to measure.

 

Specific Target: 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Goal and Target: 16.6 develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
Countries for: Switzerland, France, Germany, Lichtenstein, Netherlands, Guyana, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, Uganda, Trinidad, Tobago, UK, Australia, Netherlands, Iran, Palestine, Philippines, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Barbados, Colombia, Guatemala, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, Cyprus, The Republic of Korea, Costa Rica, US, Canada, Israel, Timor-Leste, Romania, Poland, Austria, Nepal, Mexico, Peru, US, Canada, Israel
Countries Against: None
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: Italy, Spain, Turkey, Mexico, Peru – should be linked to the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development’s role in 2016, when the annual ministerial review shall be conducted

The Republic of Korea– possible target on accountability in development cooperation

Costa Rica– accountability on public spending

Nepal-accountability to international legally binding certification in the management of industries

 

Specific Target: 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Goal and Target: 16.8 broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance
Countries for: Egypt, Indonesia, China, Kazakhstan, Iran, Pakistan, India, Tunisia, Ecuador, Argentina, Bolivia, Belarus, Serbia, Mexico, Germany, Montenegro, Slovenia, Sri Lanka, Lebanon, Switzerland, Germany, France, Bangladesh, Uganda, Colombia, Guatemala, Denmark, Norway, Ireland, Thailand, Bhutan, Viet Nam,
Countries Against: US, Canada, Israel, Bangladesh
Countries that shifted positions between one session and another: None
Brief comments on For/Against/Shifting: US, Canada, Israel– global governance shouldn’t be a major focus at this stage

Bangladesh– better suited for inclusion in the narrative part of SDG framework than as a goal or target

Indonesia, Kazakhstan, China– governance should be reflected in a preamble rather than a stand-alone goal

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